However, though some of his contemporaries did, Historians usually refer to the new Caesar as Octavian during the time between his adoption and his assumption of the name Augustus in 27 BC in order to avoid confusing the dead dictator with his heir.A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds took no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy Mark Antony.He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia.

He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.

He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.

The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).

The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.

He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.

Julia died in 52 or 51 BC, and Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother.

In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, where he planned to fight the forces of Pompey, Caesar's late enemy, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel.

Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.

Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.

By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor.